Manya Koetse

December 18, 2022

Article at whatsonweibo.com

The Big List of Chinese Covid-19 Pandemic Lexicon: Before, During, and After 'Zero Covid'

Over the past three years, the Chinese epidemic situation has shaped lives and language. China’s fight against the virus has brought a lot of Covid-19 terms and words, and since China has gone from ‘Zero Covid’ to ‘Opening Up,’ there have been many new words. Here is a glossary of China’s Covid-19 terms by What’s on Weibo. [This is exclusive What’s on Weibo premium member content. Please subscribe here for access.] There are so many words and terms that are used on Chinese social media and in official media in the past years that are new and only make sense in the context of the pandemic and China’s fight against the virus. Now that China’s epidemic situation is seeing a new phase, and the country is going from one extreme to the other, new words are again being introduced. It is therefore high time to make up the balance of the words that were used, the terms that were important and have become ingrained in China’s present-day vocabulary, and the recent terms that have been added to the ever-growing Chinese (Mandarin) epidemic lexicon. Please note that this list does not necessarily give literal translations of each word, but tries to explain what these words mean in the context of the epidemic situation. Many words have taken on a new meaning during the Covid era. The dictionary translation for the word 清零 qīnglíng, for example, is ‘to clear’ something or ‘to reset.’ But in the context of China’s Covid situation, it has come to be used to refer to the country’s Zero Covid policy, even if the word ‘Covid’ or ‘policy’ are not even included in the term. The same goes for many other terms in this list. The term 躺平 tǎngpíng basically just means to ‘lie flat’ and it was initially used for a trend among Chinese young people who are fed up with the competitive rat race in China’s job market and education, and only want to do the bare minimum because they believe that upward social mobility has become an unattainable goal. But since ‘Zero Covid,’ the word ‘lying flat’ was adopted by Chinese state media and started to be used in a different way from when it was used by young people to address their views on life. Instead, it was used as a word that referred to completely giving up the fight against Covid, and taking no measures at all (something which definitely had to be avoided at all costs) (for more about ‘Lying Flat’, read this article.) And so, simple words such as ‘sheep’ [Covid-positive person] or ‘graduation’ [being allowed to leave a quarantine location], have come to mean wildly different things in the context of China’s epidemic situation. Here’s our list (which is still being updated, so please bear with us!). 1. THE START OF THE EPIDEMIC AND THE ‘NEW NORMAL’ 2019冠狀病毒 2019 Guānzhuàng bìngdú 2019 Coronavirus; Covid-19. 本土新增病例 Běntǔ xīnzēng bìnglì New Local Infections. 常态化 Chángtàihuà Normalize. 重启 Chóngqǐ Restart; reopen. This term was also used when Wuhan ‘restarted’ in spring of 2020 (read more). 复工复产 Fùgōng fùchǎn Resumption of work and production. After the Wuhan outbreak, Chinese authorities started talking about a resumption of work and production in February of 2020. In April of that year, the central government held a meeting and stated that the resumption of work and production was almost back to normal. 公共卫生 Gōnggòng wèishēng Public health. 方舱医院 Fāngcāng yīyuàn Square-cabin hospital; makeshift hospitals. In February of 2020, the impressive construction of two enormous emergency field hospitals in Covid-stricken Wuhan captured the world’s attention. The Huoshenshan and Leishenshan Hospitals were constructed in a matter of days and combined they could take in 2,500 patients. After Wuhan, the ‘fangcang’ became a new phenomenon in Covid China, referring to centralized isolation sites for Covid-positive patients (read more here). 防疫检查 Fángyì jiǎnchá Epidemic prevention inspection. 防疫人员 Fángyì rényuán Epidemic prevention staff (later also nicknamed 大白 dàbái). 封城 Fēngchéng City lockdown. 国务院联防联控工作机制 Guówùyuàn liánfáng liánkòng gōngzuòjīzhì The Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council, launched in Jan 2020; an institutional arrangement made by the Chinese government, focusing on the mission of epidemic prevention and control. 健康管理 Jiànkāng guǎnlǐ Health management. 健康码 Jiànkāng mǎ Health Code. Within eight weeks after the start of the initial Wuhan Covid outbreak, Alibaba (on Alipay) and Tencent (on WeChat) developed and introduced the ‘Health Code,’ a system that gives individuals colored QR codes based on their exposure risk to Covid-19 and serves as an electronic ticket to enter and exit public spaces, restaurants, offices buildings, etc., and to travel from one area to another (read more here). 解封 Jiěfēng Lift the lockdown. “Wuhan Lifts the Lockdown” (#武汉解封#) went trending on Chinese social media in April of 2020 after the city reopened, celebrating the event with a spectacular midnight light show. 就地过年 Jiùdì guònián Staycation; staying put for the holidays. Refers to people staying home for Chinese New Year instead of traveling long distance to spend the Spring Festival with their family. This word became especially relevant during the Spring Festival of 2021 (read more). 口罩 Kǒuzhào Face mask. 逆行者 Nìxíngzhě Those fighting back. This is a buzzword from 2020 often used by state media to describe frontline workers and others as the ‘people going backward’, referring to those who dare to go back and face problems when everyone else is turning away. 气溶胶 Qìróngjiāo Aerosols. 人际交往 Rénjì jiāowǎng Interpersonal Interaction; Social contact. 人民至上 Rénmín zhìshàng “Put the people in the first place.” As explained in this article by What’s on Weibo, Chinese President Xi Jinping made a speech in May of 2020 including a segment about “our people come first, people’s lives come first, and the safety and health of our people should be secured at all costs.” “Put the people in the first place” has since become a widely circulated slogan and guiding principle for government and society to combat Covid-19 across the country. 社交距离 Shèjiāo jùlí Social distance. 新冠肺炎 Xīnguān fèiyán Novel Coronavirus; New Corona pneumonia. 新型冠状病毒 Xīnxíng guānzhuàng bìngdú New Coronavirus; Covid-19. 疫情 Yìqíng Epidemic. 疫情期间 Yìqíng qíjiān During the epidemic. 远程办公 Yuǎnchéng bàngōng Working from home. 娱乐场所 Yúlè chǎngsuǒ Places of entertainment. 云监工 Yún jiāngōng ‘Cloud Supervisor.’ This a new word to refer to the people “supervising” (i.e. witnessing and cheering for) the rapid construction of the Huoshenshan and Leishenshan makeshift hospitals in Wuhan via the government’s cloud online streaming of the construction site. 网课 Wǎng kè Online classes. 无接触配送 Wú jiēchù pèisòng Contactless delivery. 无症状 Wúzhèngzhuàng Asymptomatic. 无症状感染者 Wúzhèngzhuàng gǎnrǎnzhě Asymptomatic infected person. This refers to people who test positive for Covid but show no clinical symptoms (this is different from 确诊病例 quèzhěn bìnglì, a confirmed Covid case showing symptoms). 行程码 Xíngchéngmǎ Travel Code. Full word is 通信大数据行程卡, ‘Telecommunications Big Data Travel Card,’ better known as the ‘green arrow code,’ which tracks users’ travel history and is also available inside WeChat or can be downloaded as a standalone app. Its goal is to track if you’ve been to any medium or high-risk areas over the past 14 days. The Travel Code was officially taken offline on December 13, 2022. 直播带货 Zhíbò dàihuò Livestream commerce. Live streaming commerce was already popular in China, and the epidemic pushed the popularity of shopping by watching livestreams to the next level. 2. ZERO COVID ERA 爱心蔬菜礼包 Àixīn shūcài lǐbāo So-called ‘Grocery care packages,’ also 大礼包 dàlǐbāo, are some grocery supplies provided by the government. These ‘care packages’ became a ubiquitous phenomenon in many areas across China where people were in high-risk, locked-down areas. While many struggled to get (online) groceries at normal prices, local governments sent out boxes or bags filled with vegetables, meat, noodles, fruit and snacks to make sure households had some food to get them through the next few days. 被封闭 Bèi fēngbì Being locked down. 被弹窗 Bèi dànchuāng Getting popped up. This phenomenon happens when residents receive a much-dreaded “pop-up message” on their mobile phone via their Health Code app. This means that the app – through the use of big data and the monitoring of people’s status and movements – has determined that you’re a possible contagion risk based on where you went at what time. People who received the pop-up message are supposed to report to their community/hotel/school so that the relevant departments can conduct a “risk check.” The pop-up window will not disappear until individuals are officially no longer considered a contagion risk (read more). 被拉走 Bèi lāzǒu Being dragged away; taken off. This word was especially used during the Xi’an lockdown when people expressed fears of being taken away to a centralized quarantine location after the sudden quarantine of the city’s Mingde Bayingli Community. 闭环管理 Bìhuán guǎnlǐ Closed loop management. The ‘Covid-19 closed-loop management’ (新冠疫情闭环管理) has been applied to various areas when there were new local cases of COVID-19. It means that people belonging to a certain (work) group are only allowed to move between designated venues for work, living, eating, through a dedicated transport system. This word became especially known because the 2022 Olympics in China also used this style (read here). 闭环作业的高风险岗位 Bìhuán zuòyè de gāo fēngxiǎn gǎngwèi High-risk positions in closed-loop operations. 毕业 Bìyè ‘Graduate.’ In Covid times, this term was used by patients who were allowed to leave the Fangcang (quarantine hospital). 仓主 Cāngzhǔ Someone who is at a Fangcang (quarantine hospital). 出舱 Chūcāng Leaving the fangcang. Also referred to as a ‘graduation’ 毕业 (Bìyè). 春耕证 Chūngēngzhèng ‘Spring Ploughing Permit.’ This is a permit that was introduced in rural areas in Covid lockdown times to allow local farmers to go out into the fields to work despite epidemic restrictions. 大白 Dàbái Big white; anti-epidemic worker. In early 2022, the anti-epidemic workers dressed in white hazmat suits were more commonly referred to as ‘dàbái,’ an and affectionate nickname that literally means “big white.” In the Chinese version of the 2014 Disney movie Big Hero 6, the healthcare-robot Baymax is also called Dàbái. For more about public attitudes toward dabai in early 2022, see this article. 单独舱室的集中隔离点 Dāndú cāngshì de jízhōng gélídiǎn ‘Separate Compartment Concentrated Isolation Point’; isolation site with separated cabins. Also known as “单人单间”集中隔离 [“Dānrén dānjiān” jízhōng gélí, lit “Single room” Centralized Isolation] or 单人单间隔离 [Dānrén dānjiàn gélí, Single Room Isolation]. 单人单管 Dānrén dānguǎn Individual test; single tube test. This is a single, individual Covid test whereas ‘pooled sample testing’ (see 混合采样 hùnhé cǎiyàng) takes samples from multiple people, storing the result in batches, or pools, and then testing each pool. 点式复工 Diǎnshì fùgōng Point-based work resumption. An active policy introduced in spring of 2022 for people holding key positions at companies within the non-manufacturing sector that are resuming work. According to the ‘point-to-point’ (点对点) strategy, employees are either staying within the closed loop of their workplace or within the premises of their community. They can only return to their workplace once a month, and are not allowed to stay longer than one week (read more). 低风险地区 Dī fēngxiǎn dìqū Low risk area, which is the lowest classification compared to “medium-risk areas” 中风险地区 and “High-risk areas” 高风险地区. 动态清零 Dòngtài qīnglíng Dynamic zero; Dynamic Zero Covid policy. 囤货模式 Dùnhuò móshì Hoarding mode. Referring to the panic buying taking place in several places, such as in Chengdu, right before a lockdown. 方舱隔离点 Fāngcāng gélídiǎn Fangcang isolation point; quarantine center. 放毒 Fàngdú Spreaders. Negative online slang word to refer to ‘spreaders’, those Covid-positive persons who infect others. The word fàngdú literally means to poison or to spread malicious rumors. 非必要不出门 Fēi bìyào bù chūmén Do not go out unless necessary. 封锁式隔离 Fēngsuǒshì gélí Locked isolation. 高风险地区 Gāo fēngxiǎn dìqū High-risk district. 高风险区外溢人员 Gāo fēngxiǎnqū wàiyì rényuán People who come from a high-risk area (return). 隔离点 Gélí diǎn Isolation point. 隔离方舱 Gélí fāngcāng Isolation Fangcang. 隔离围挡 Gélí wéidǎng Isolation fence. 共存派 Gòngcúnpài or 开放派 Kāifàng pài The group of people in society who want to open up and live together with the virus. They’re the opponents of the 清零派 qīnglíngpài, who oppose opening up the country and advocate persisting in the fight against Covid. 核酸检测 Hésuān jiǎncè Nucleic acid test; RT-PCR test. Not to be confused with the Rapid PCR test or antigen test (抗原检测 kàngyuán jiǎncè). 核酸点位 Hésuān diǎnwèi Nucleic acid test site. 核酸地图 Hésuān dìtú Nucleic acid test map. A map that shows where you can get a nucleic test. Officially launched by Gaode in May of 2022. 核酸阴性检测证明 Hésuān yīnxìng jiǎncè zhèngmíng Negative nucleic acid test certificate. 混合采样 Hùnhé cǎiyàng Pooled sample testing; Mixed testing; also called 混采 hùncǎi. Nucleic acid testing is done as single or mixed according to the risk level of the target population. For example, those in quarantine locations or high-risk areas will always be tested individually but when the area is low risk, ten or twenty results can be mixed and tested together. When paying for own tests, pooled testing is also cheaper. 检查站 Jiǎncházhàn Checkpoint. 静默管理 Jìngmò guǎnlǐ Quiet management; silent management. This concept was introduced as a ‘soft lockdown’ but it is actually also a pretty strict, region-wide static management, which allows people to only leave their homes, units, or communities for nucleic acid testing, or unless absolutely necessary. The purpose is to prevent people to leave their homes for non-essential matters in order to quickly trace down new infections and to prevent Covid from spreading beyond a high-risk area. 静态管理 Jìngtài guǎnlǐ Static management. This is a kind of lockdown that is stricter than ‘quiet management’ (静默管理 jìngmò guǎnlǐ) and severely limits the flow of people and vehicles in a high-risk area, and suspends all businesses in the area except for supermarkets, pharmacies, and medical institutions. 精准防控 Jīngzhǔn fángkòng Precise prevention and control. 集中隔离 Jízhōng gélí Centralized isolation. 居家静止 Jūjiā jìngzhǐ ‘Home lockdown’; ‘Home standstill.’ Another word to describe a lockdown during China’s Zero Covid, where there have been many different words to describe similar measures (also: 全域静默, 静态管理, 停止一切非必要人员流动). 居民出入证 Jūmín chūrù zhèng Residents’ entrance and exit permit. During lockdowns, this permit allowed residents to go out once per day (one person per household) for two hours, allowing residents to do essntial shopping or other activities. 科学精准 Kēxué jīngzhǔn Scientific and precise. Used in the context of carrying out epidemic prevention measures in a scientific and precise manner. 临时被封闭 Línshí bèi fēngbì Temporarily locked down. 绿马 Lǜmǎ Green horse. ‘Green Horse’ in Chinese sounds exactly the same as the word for ‘green code’ (绿码), referring to the green QR code in China’s Covid health apps. The phrase “Bàozhù lǜmǎ” (抱住绿码/马) became popular on Chinese social media, a wordplay meant to mean both “Keep your code green” as well as “Hold on to your Green Horse” (read more). 密切接触者 Mìqiè jiēchùzhě Close contact. 密接的密接 Mìqiè de mìqiè Close contacts of close contacts. This is just one among the many words to label those who have might come across someone who tested positive for Covid in various ways (密接、二代密接、次次密接、次次次密接、一般接触者、同性密接、异性密接、同城密接、同层密接、同楼密). 强制隔离 Qiángzhì gélí Mandatory quarantine. 清零 Qīnglíng or 清零政策 Qīnglíng zhèngcè Zero Covid policy. 清零派 Qīnglíngpài The “Zero School”, or the “Zero Covid Faction”, referring to those people who oppose opening up the country and advocate persisting in the fight against Covid. They’re the opponents of the 共存派 gòngcúnpài or 开放派 kāifàng pài, who advocate opening up and living together with the virus. 气泡式管理 Qìpào shì guǎnlǐ Bubble-style management. This term was especially used for the Winter Olympics, where participants were only allowed to move between Games-related venues for their training, catering, accommodation, etc. through a dedicated Games transport system. Participants were not allowed to leave their designated areas. But the term also popped up again in May of 2022 to announce new measures in order to allow production to continue at factories and other businesses (read more). 全员核酸筛查 Quányuán hésuān shāichá Nucleic screenings for Covid. 入境航班熔断机制 Rùjìng hángbān róngduàn jīzhì Circuit breaker measures for scheduled international passenger flights. To prevent the cross-border spread of Covid-19, the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) issued an official notice on the Adjustment of the Circuit Breaker Measures for International Passenger Flights, which imposed circuit-breaker measures on scheduled international passenger flights with a high risk of spreading the pandemic, from 8 June 2020. The so-called “circuit breaking mechanism” under which China-bound flight routes were suspended for two weeks if an airline was found to carry a certain number of passengers testing positive for Covid was abolished in November of 2022. 社会面清零 Shèhuìmiàn qīnglíng Zero covid on the society level; safe social surface. This is a word that was mainly used during ‘zero Covid’ in 2022 and refers to a degree of control on the spread of Covid within the communities. This means that all those who test positive are in isolation or within closed-loop systems and that they are unable to infect others, which is equivalent to a ‘safe social surface.’ This word was also used when the big Xi’an outbreak was largely contained in the city’s main communities after two weeks of lockdown, during which over 42,000 people were quarantined and brought to other locations. 时空伴随者 Shíkōng bànsuízhě ‘Time-space Company.’ Refers to those who have been near a confirmed Covid patient in time and space; meaning that within a time frame of fourteen days a person has spent more than ten minutes with a confirmed Covid case within a distance of 800 meters. This means the ‘Health Code’ could turn to yellow. 四早 Sì zǎo Four early: early detection, early reporting, early isolation, early treatment 躺平派 Tǎngpíngpài The ‘lie flat group,’ referring to those who want to give up all measures and give up the fight against Covid. ‘Lying flat’ (tǎngpíng) is a word that has been around for much longer but it has come to take on a different meaning during the pandemic. For more about China’s Lying Flat momevement, check our article here. 铁网 Tiěwǎng Fenced. 通行证 Tōng xíng zhèng Pass to enter. In Covid times, this mainly refers to a permit to allow cross-provincial travel and business (i.e. freight vehicles and such). 围合管理 Wéi hé guǎnlǐ Enclosed managament. This officially is not a ‘lockdown’ but it means that a certain residential area of community is fenced off, with checkpoints at the community entrance and exit. Both people and vehicles can enter and exit with a permit. People who do not live or work in the enclosed area are not allowed to enter. 严防 Yánfáng Take strict measures. 羊/🐑 Yáng Literally means ‘sheep’ but has come to be used to refer to someone who tested positive for Covid, since the word for ‘positive’ (阳) sounds the same. 阳了 Yáng le Tested positive. 阳性 Yángxìng Covid Positive. 疑似病例 Yísì bìnglì Suspected case. 永久性方舱医院 Yǒngjiǔxìng fāngcāng yīyuàn Permanent shelter hospitals; permanent fangcang hospitals. This term was introduced in May of 2022 and is somewhat contradictory as a concept, since ‘Fangcang hospitals’ are actually defined by their temporary nature. The term came up when Chinese authorities emphasized the need for China’s bigger cities to build or renovate existing makeshift Covid hospitals, and turn them into permanent sites (read more). 原则居家 Yuánzé jūjiā Stay at home in principle; Ordered stay-at-home. Term used authorities instead of ‘lockdown’ in the second half of 2022. 硬隔离 Yìng gélí Hard isolation; Fenced isolation. While some Shanghai households had already endured weeks of isolation, a new word was added to their epidemic vocabulary in April of 2022: ‘hard isolation’ or ‘strong quarantine.’ The word popped up on Chinese social media on April 23rd after some Shanghai netizens posted photos of fences being set up around their community building to keep residents from walking out. Read more about ‘hard isolation’ here. 应检尽检 Yīng jiǎn jǐn jiǎn Whoever should be tested, should be tested as much as possible; all those who need it, need to be tested. 医院非绿码医疗救治 Yīyuàn fēi lǜmǎ yīliáo jiùzhì Non-green code medical treatment. Referring to the medical treatment of those whose Health Code apps do not show a ‘green code’, meaning they potentially are at risk of having been in contact with someone who is Covid-positive. (Also: “非绿码”患者的医疗救治.) 小阳人 Xiǎo yángrén Little positive people, also little sheep people; used to refer to people who tested positive for Covid in a joking and somewhat deregatory way. 新冠肺炎疫情地图 Xīnguān fèiyán yìqíng dìtú Covid outbreak map, also: ‘epidemic map’ 疫情地图 yìqíng dìtú. 暂时隔离 Zhànshí gélí Temporary isolation / lockdown. 中风险地区 Zhòng fēngxiǎn dìqū Medium-risk area. 自我隔离点 Zìwǒ gélí diǎn Self-isolation site. 做核酸 Zuò hésuān Do a nucleic acid test. 3. POST ZERO COVID 奥密克戎病毒 Àomìkèróng bìngdú Omicron Virus. 布洛芬 Bùluòfēn Ibuprofen. 长期新冠 Chángqí xīnguān Long Covid. 初阳权 Chū yáng quán ‘The privilege to infect someone.’ This word, which went trending on Chinese social media in December of 2022, consists of three characters literally meaning ‘first positive right.’ At a time when one person after the other tests positive for Covid, it is an ongoing joke about who has the privilege to infect another person with Covid. It is a wordplay on 初夜权 chūyè quán, ‘right of the first night’ (droit du seigneur), and – tongue in cheek – suggests that nobody else but the husband has the right to infect their wife with Omicron. The main idea is that everyone will inevitably get infected anyway, so it’s better the be infected by someone you love. 毒株 Dúzhū Virus strain. 发烧 Fāshāo Run a fever. 复阳 Fùyáng To test positive again. This word, which literally means ‘repeat positive,’ is not the same as being ‘reinfected’ or getting Covid a second time. Instead it refers to testing positive after initially testing negative, with a likely reason being that the body has not cleared the virus yet. 发热门诊 Fārè ménzhěn Fever clinics. 感染高峰 Gǎnrǎn gāofēng Infection peak. 加强针 Jiāqiáng zhēn Booster shot. 检测结果呈阳性 Jiǎncè jiéguǒ chéng yángxìng Positive Covid test. 急诊室 Jízhěn shì Emergency room. 急转弯 Jízhuǎnwān Sudden turn; sharp turn. Often used in the context of the shift from zero Covid policy to easing measures. 居家隔离 Jūjiā gélí Home isolation; home quarantine. 居家健康监测 Jūjiā jiànkāng jiāncè Home health monitoring. 抗原检测 Kàngyuán jiǎncè Antigen test. 连花清瘟 Lianhua Qingwen Traditional Chinese medicine Lianhua Qingwen (连花清瘟), a herbal pill by Yiling Pharmaceuticals which is used for the treatment of influenza as well as Covid. 盲目囤药 Mángmù dùnyào Blindly hoarding medicine. 临时接种点 Línshí jiēzhǒngdiǎn Temporary vaccination sites. 流动接种车 Liúdòng jiēzhǒngchē Mobile vaccination vans. 绿色通道 Lǜsè tōngdào Green channels (for vaccination). Meant to speed up vaccination rates among the eldery by giving them priority status. 盲目吃药 Mángmù chī yào Take medicine blindly; take too many medicines or to take them the wrong way. 免疫系统 Miǎnyì xìtǒng Immune system. 免疫力 Miǎnyìlì Immunity. 前疫情时代 Qián yìqíng shídài Pre-pandemic era. 全面放开 Quánmiàn fàngkāi Full liberalization; complete opening-up. 唐飞 Tángfēi This word refers to the two sides in Chinese society when it comes to Covid policies, with one supporting ‘zero Covid’ while the other side advocates living together with the virus and opening up. The first group calls the others 躺匪 tǎngfěi, ‘lying bandits’ (who support ‘lying flat’ and living with the virus), of which the pronunciation in standard Chinese is similar to 唐飞 tángfēi, a homophone which has come to be used as online slang. 退烧 Tuìshāo Reduce fever. 新十条 Xīn shítiáo Ten new rules. Referring a 10-point plan addressing changes in Covid measures, and basically annoucning the end of ‘Zero Covid’ (read more here). 阳康 Yángkāng Recover from Covid. This word is a combination of 阳 yáng, meaning [to test] ‘positive,’ and the word 康 kāng meaning ‘healthy.’ 优化核酸检测 Yōuhuà hésuān jiǎncè Optimized nucleic acid testing. 政治出柜 Zhèngzhì chūguì Political coming-out. This term came up after the protests of November 2022 and refers to people showing their political position or views to those around them, usually in social media settings. It mostly refers to ‘coming out’ about being pro-opening up or for sticking with ‘zero Covid.’ Read more here. 自费采样点 Zìfèi cǎiyàng diǎn Self-paid testing point. (This article is still being updated.) By Manya Koetse 


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